Customary authority

Despite this, scholars have recently noted a resurgence of customary authority in the developing world Comaroff and Comaroff Organisations that are autonomous and independent from third-party influence will be better positioned to serve the needs of their constituents Fukuyama ; Evans Because of the acephalous nature of tribes, it is more difficult for a single leader to aggregate group interests in a hierarchical fashion.

On the other hand, some customary organisations are relatively egalitarian. It was impossible to gain the support of an entire population based on the agreement of a tribal leader.

express authority

Interventions in places with customary organisations may be more likely to succeed if donors first understand the rules that govern them. Ties within trust networks tend be thick and to last longer than the connections fostered by other forms of organisation Tilly Beyond the general illegality, these corrupt practices hinder the effectiveness and raise the costs of CDD.

The writers explain this reduction in political competition by suggesting that British-promulgated indirect rule undermined existing checks on chiefly authority, especially pre-existing norms that allowed citizens to appeal rulings. The idea behind the creation of new CDD councils was to get around sources of local capture thought to be embodied in customary actors.

Law of agency notes

All the other endorsements produced a backfire effect — a decline in support for the law relative to the control group, which heard no endorsement at all. One extensive review identified corruption and capture as the largest threat to the efficacy of the local participation paradigm Mansuri and Rao It is even difficult to construct a typology of customary authority, so intricate and varied are the different forms. It must be coupled with inclusive decision-making procedures and governed by constraints, as discussed below. PRAs utilised community organisers usually NGO employees who would travel to communities to help them implement self-appraisals, which often took place over the course of several days. It has been explained as a form of apparent authority, or "inherent agency power". Lerner famously proclaimed the passing of customary authority. The autonomy of customary organisations is undermined when the state seeks to co-opt such authority by, for example, offering salaries, honoraria, land tenure rights, loans, and other financial incentives, mostly to customary leaders. At least 61 countries, primarily developing ones and as diverse as Ghana, Mexico, and Indonesia, acknowledge the presence of some form of customary authority in their constitutions Holzinger, Kern, and Kromrey a. For example, if a CDD programme is designed to solve local health issues, often the programme will create a new community health council or fund a local NGO to implement the specific projects that communities have agreed upon.
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(4) Types of authority